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Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set Project

Data Acquisition, Archiving, and Management Plan (Original)

February 14, 1992

Introduction:

Scientific investigations have indicated that significant global earth science information can be derived from the 1 kilometer (km) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data acquired by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) TIROS polar-orbiting satellite program. Over the past 2 years various groups, including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Science Team, and others have identified the need for the acquisition and compilation of a global 1-km resolution multi-temporal AVHRR data set. NASA has also identified this data set as critical to the preparatory studies for the Earth Observing System (EOS). As a result, NASA Headquarters has asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), EDC Data Center (EDC) to coordinate the preparation of such a data set as a part of its role as the EOSDIS/Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.

Based upon current AVHRR data collection efforts by NOAA, the USGS, the European Space Agency (ESA), Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), and a number of non-U.S. AVHRR receiving stations, it appears feasible to collect a global land 1-km AVHRR data set over all land surfaces using NOAA's TIROS "afternoon" polar-orbiting satellite. This effort, therefore, will require a great deal of international cooperation to ensure the acquisition and compilation of the data set. Further, the project has required full endorsement from the Committee on Earth Observing Systems (CEOS) Plenary, through the recommendation of the CEOS Working Group on Data (CEOS- WGD), for the compilation of the data set. CEOS Plenary endorsement facilitates international cooperation in ensuring participation and completion of the data set.

This Plan offers a definition for this data set and a strategy for its acquisition, archiving, and management.

Definition of a Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set:

The global land 1-km AVHRR data set will be composed of 5 channel, 10- bit, raw AVHRR data, at 1.1- km resolution (nadir), collected continuously for 18 consecutive months beginning April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993 for each daily orbital pass over "all" land surfaces and coastal zones using NOAA's TIROS "afternoon" polar-orbiting satellites.

In this project plan, "all" land 1-km AVHRR data refers to the collection and archiving of data during every possible "afternoon" orbital pass which falls within the coverage area of the AVHRR ground receiving station. Afternoon data is mandatory, second priority will be given to morning and nighttime data, while evening data will be given lowest priority.

Requirements Definition:

NOAA researchers, EOS-MODIS Science Team land scientists, the IGBP Land Cover Pilot Project, and the CEC/ESA TREES Programme have identified requirements for a global land 1-km AVHRR data set, for a minimum period of 18 months, starting in 1992 to support global change data product development and research. Although additional requirements have been identified for a multi-year data set, this project will focus on the compilation of the 1992-1993 18-month data set as the initial priority activity. Several distinct research activities are emerging that emphasize the need for global land 1-km AVHRR data.

The IGBP-DIS pilot group completed a scientific and technical requirements document for a global land 1-km AVHRR data set. The data set would be multi-year, requiring considerable preprocessing for use by the IGBP science community primarily for land cover assessment.

The MODIS Science Team Land Group has recently reached a consensus that a global land 1-km AVHRR data set is crucial to their efforts to develop algorithms for several MODIS Land Products.

NOAA researchers have a requirement for a land 1-km AVHRR data set of the Northern Hemisphere to study the "heat island" effect of urban areas on surface observations of temperature data.

The UN/FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990 Project has a requirement for land 1-km AVHRR data of all forested lands on the planet, with emphasis on tropical forests, for their global forest inventory mandate.

The Commission of the European Communities and ESA have a joint requirement for global, near daily, long-term, consistent optical and thermal satellite data for tropical environments in support of their joint project call TREES (Tropical Ecosystem Environment Observations by Satellite).

Finally, the 1-km AVHRR data set has been targeted as a significant contribution to the International Space Year.

Strategy for Acquisition:

This plan proposes that four major participants, namely NOAA, with its High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recorder; ESA, with its AVHRR HRPT ground station network; and the USGS and NASA, with the USGS/EDC AVHRR HRPT ground station network augmented by key CSIRO/Australian HRPT stations, cooperate to assume responsibility for the acquisition and compilation of a global land 1-km AVHRR data set. This plan gives highest priority to a cooperative strategy that assures that the global land 1-km AVHRR data are acquired and archived by the participating agencies. A strategy for developing the data exchange agreements will need to be defined cooperatively among the participants.

The attached map depicts the approximate coverage areas for critical ESA and USGS/NASA AVHRR HRPT ground stations and indicates the agency responsible for the collection of the data. Those areas not covered by HRPT stations, or those stations not able to collect data throughout the 18-month period, will be the responsibility of NOAA using the available on board data recorders (LAC data).

Responsibilities:

In order to ensure the compilation and development of a global land 1-km AVHRR data set the following responsibilities have been defined.

U.S. Geological Survey/NASA will:

Acquire, on a daily basis, all AVHRR data transmitted during each orbital pass of NOAA's TIROS series polar-orbiting satellite(s) using EDC's direct receive (HRPT) ground station for the period April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Acquire, using EDC's DOMSAT relay/reception system, all recorded AVHRR LAC data and all AVHRR HRPT data acquired by NOAA's Fairbanks and Wallops Island ground stations that is transmitted to NOAA's satellite operation control via DOMSAT during the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Establish a letter of agreement and a technical project plan with ESA for the acquisition and transfer to EDC of all AVHRR data from ESA's core network of global land 1-km AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Establish agreement and a technical project plan with CSIRO for the acquisition and transfer to EDC of all AVHRR data from CSIRO/Australia's core network of global land 1-km AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Obtain commitments from the core network of global land 1-km AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations for the acquisition and transfer of all HRPT AVHRR data to EDC for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Obtain commitments from NOAA for the acquisition of all AVHRR HRPT data acquired by Fairbanks and Wallops Island and the transfer, via DOMSAT, of all recorded AVHRR LAC data and the AVHRR HRPT data to NOAA's satellite operations control center for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Process and archive, in a "raw" format, all (LAC and HRPT) AVHRR data acquired/transferred to EDC as part of the Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set project.

Populate, maintain, and provide worldwide access to an information system containing "metadata" and digital browse data for the global land 1-km AVHRR data set and distribute, via subscription, microimage browse.

Provide product preparation and generation capabilities for a basic set of data products and derived global data products/sets and distribute these data.

European Space Agency will:

Obtain commitments from ESA's network of global land 1-km AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations for the acquisition and transfer of all HRPT AVHRR data to ESA/ESRIN/Earthnet for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Process and archive, in a "raw" format, all (LAC and HRPT) AVHRR data acquired/transferred to ESA as part of the Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set project.

Establish a letter of agreement and a technical project plan with the USGS/NASA for the transfer to EDC of all AVHRR data acquired by ESA's core network of global land 1-km AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Populate, maintain, and provide worldwide access to a "metadata" and digital browse data system for the global land 1-km AVHRR data set.

Provide product preparation and generation capabilities for a basic set of data products and derived global data products/sets and distribute these data in accordance with ESA data distribution policies and guidelines.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration will:

Make their best effort to schedule, during the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993, the daily acquisition of recorded (LAC) AVHRR data for those areas not covered by the collective core network of AVHRR HRPT ground stations (see ground station plot), or those HRPT stations unable to meet the requirements of the project throughout the entire 18-month period (April 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993).

Ensure the transfer, via DOMSAT, of all recorded AVHRR LAC data to NOAA's satellite operations control center for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Ensure the acquisition of all AVHRR HRPT data by the Fairbanks and Wallops Island ground receiving stations and the transfer, via DOMSAT, of all the AVHRR HRPT data to NOAA's satellite operations control center for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Process and archive, in a "raw" format, all (LAC and HRPT) AVHRR data acquired/transferred to NOAA as part of the Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set project and serve as a backup archive to the USGS/EDC data archive for all recorded LAC data and HRPT data acquired by the Fairbanks and Wallops Island stations.

Authorize the USGS/EDC to distribute the global land 1-km AVHRR data in a raw form.

Populate, maintain, and provide access to a "metadata" system for the global land 1-km AVHRR data set.

Provide product preparation and generation capabilities for a basic set of data products and distribute these data in accordance with NOAA data distribution policies and guidelines.

CSIRO Australia will:

Obtain commitments from the Australian network of key global land 1-km AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations for the acquisition and transfer of all HRPT AVHRR data to CSIRO for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Archive, in a "raw" format, all AVHRR data acquired/transferred to CSIRO as part of the Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set project.

Establish agreement and a technical project plan with the USGS/NASA for the transfer to EDC of all AVHRR data acquired by key Australian AVHRR HRPT ground receiving stations as part of the Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set project.

Populate, maintain, and provide access to a "metadata" system for the global land 1-km AVHRR data set.

Investigate product preparation and generation capabilities for a basic set of data products and derived global data products/sets, and distribute these data in accordance with established CSIRO/Australia data distribution policies and guidelines.

ESA and USGS Network of AVHRR HRPT Ground Receiving Stations will:

Acquire, on a daily basis, all AVHRR data transmitted during each orbital pass of NOAA's TIROS series polar-orbiting satellite(s) using their direct receive (HRPT) ground station system for the period April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Establish agreement with ESA or USGS/NASA for the acquisition and transfer, to ESA or EDC, of all AVHRR HRPT data for the period of April 1, 1992 - September 30, 1993.

Transfer in a "raw" format, all HRPT AVHRR data acquired as part of the Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set project.

Strategy for Data Exchange and Compilation of a Global Land 1-km AVHRR Data Set:

The primary emphasis of this Plan is the acquisition and archiving of a global land 1-km AVHRR data set. Through cooperative agreements each major participating agency (NOAA, ESA, and USGS/NASA) will assume responsibility for archiving and management of the data set. Once the collection and archiving of data is assured, arrangements for data exchange and compilation of a global land data set will be facilitated among the four participating agencies. It is agreed that the four major participating agencies will exchange their AVHRR data so that a complete global land AVHRR data set can be compiled, copied, and archived at each facility, with emphasis on ensuring compilation of the global data set at the central facility (USGS/EDC). It is assumed that ESA, NOAA, and the USGS/NASA will provide/distribute the raw and derived data products on a nondiscriminatory basis, at the marginal cost of processing the specific user request.

Product Preparation and Generation:

The product preparation and generation activities are considered a follow-on phase to the current data acquisition, archiving, and management activities. This phase of the project will focus on the generation and distribution of prototype, as well as operational products from the 1-km data set for use by the international global science community and EOS science investigators. The specific product preparation and generation activities will be identified through the coordination with IGBP, CEOS-WGD, EosDIS, and others. A detailed plan will be prepared by June-July 1992 timeframe.

HRPT Station Network and LAC Coverage Areas of April 1, 1992

Anticipated Project Phases as of May 20, 1992